哲 学 三 慧
〔Extracted from Professor Thomé H. Fang’s early work〕
Three Types of Philosophical Wisdom
Trans. Suncrtes and Sandra A. Wawrytko
6.314 Such a concentric way of sympathetic interpenetration is precisely the great norm of the Chinese cultural values. It is remarkably illustrated, first, in the Book of Propriety of the Chou Dynasty wherein the six virtues have consummated in the pair of equilibrium and harmony. (In his Commentaries on it, Grand Minister Cheng Hsüan of the Han Dynasty had interpreted, the Chinese word for "sympathy," as compounded of "the concentrinc"and "the heart-core.") It is remarkably illustrated, secondly, in the Six Arts (Six Classics), wherein poetry, propriety, and music were originally indistinguishable in that poetry means wherever the note of concentricity reaches; music means the ruling measure of equilibrium and harmony; and propriety means the teachings on the concentric way of life as the authentic, for prevention of hypocrisy. It is remarkably illustrated, thirdly, in the art of Chinese architecture wherein the buildings are surrounded with mountains and rivers as if situated spiritually in the pivot of Tao so as to be responsive readily and adequately to the myriad situations of life, thus forming in epitome the beauty of harmony in the art of gardening. It is remarkably illustrated, fourthly, in the art of Chinese painting wherein the deliberate "break" of the law of perspective may seem to be a defect in method; yet, as treated with the mastery of composition, direction, contrast [yin-yang], distance, shade and light, size, texture, source and stream, passages and segments, and executed by the magic touch of an able hand, the latent is at once made manifest, and there emerges the vividness of quality in all its immediacy ["ch’i-yün sheng-tung," usually rendered as "exuberant vitality"], as in a direct vision or intuition, that completely blocks out any screening obstructiveness and presents the scene of wonders in the infinitely fluctuating forms, yet without departing in the slightest from the principle of equilibrium and harmony. It is remarkably illustrated, fifthly, in literature wherein various genres of production are all aimed at the conveyance of the unique aura of the spiritual, and at the depiction of the subtle charm of the divine. Thus it follows that sound and rhyme make a harmony while note and rhythm form a concord; the vigorous force turns inwardly for condensation while the graceful tendency burst forth outwardly for expression; the rhythmic modulation echoes spontaneously that of the cosmic note while the total texture resembles the racing course of the great dragon; the literary mind brightens as the full moon while the creative spirit soars aloft as riding the wind celestial. Each and every nuance of meaning is shown subtly, suggestively, and with restraint, in a thoroughly sustained style, with all parts organically interconnected, yet in perfect accord with the Mean or Equilibrium and Harmony as the Fundamentum of the Tao.